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Scalaz(19)- Monad: \/ - Monad 版本的 Either(一)
2017-10-10 12:13:27 】 浏览:4047
Tags:Scalaz Monad 版本 Either

  scala标准库提供了一个Either类型,它可以说是Option的升级版。与Option相同,Either也有两种状态:Left和Right,分别对应Option的None和Some,不同的是Left可以返回一个值。我们通常用这个值来表述异常信息。scalaz也提供了自己版本的Either,并用\/来分辨表示,以及两种状态-\/和\/-。我想scalaz特别提供\/是有原因的:\/不单是一种类型,它是一种type class。更重要的是\/是一种Monad,具备了函数组合能力(composibility)。如此能够方便把Either功能整合到FP编程中去。我们先看看\/的定义:scalaz/Either.scala

sealed abstract class \/[+A, +B] extends Product with Serializable { ... def isLeft: Boolean =
    this match { case -\/(_) => true
      case \/-(_) => false } /** Return `true` if this disjunction is right. */ def isRight: Boolean =
    this match { case -\/(_) => false
      case \/-(_) => true } ... /** Return the right value of this disjunction or the given default if left. Alias for `|` */ def getOrElse[BB >: B](x: => BB): BB =
    this match { case -\/(_) => x case \/-(b) => b } /** Return the right value of this disjunction or the given default if left. Alias for `getOrElse` */ def |[BB >: B](x: => BB): BB = getOrElse(x) /** Return the right value of this disjunction or run the given function on the left. */ def valueOr[BB >: B](x: A => BB): BB =
    this match { case -\/(a) => x(a) case \/-(b) => b } /** Return this if it is a right, otherwise, return the given value. Alias for `|||` */ def orElse[AA >: A, BB >: B](x: => AA \/ BB): AA \/ BB =
    this match { case -\/(_) => x case \/-(_) => this } /** Return this if it is a right, otherwise, return the given value. Alias for `orElse` */ def |||[AA >: A, BB >: B](x: => AA \/ BB): AA \/ BB = orElse(x) ...

 

与Option相同:\/也提供了函数来获取运算值(Right[A]),如getOrElse。那么如何获取异常信息呢?可以用swap后再用getOrElse:

  /** Flip the left/right values in this disjunction. Alias for `unary_~` */ def swap: (B \/ A) =
    this match { case -\/(a) => \/-(a) case \/-(b) => -\/(b) } /** Flip the left/right values in this disjunction. Alias for `swap` */ def unary_~ : (B \/ A) = swap "ah, error!".left[Int].getOrElse("no error")      //> res2: Any = no error
"ah, error!".left[Int].swap.getOrElse("no error") //> res3: String = ah, error!
(~"ah, error!".left[Int]).getOrElse("no error")   //> res4: String = ah, error!

与Option一样,\/也有两种状态:

/** A left disjunction * * Often used to represent the failure case of a result */ final case class -\/[+A](a: A) extends (A \/ Nothing) /** A right disjunction * * Often used to represent the success case of a result */ final case class \/-[+B](b: B) extends (Nothing \/ B)

\/实现了map和flatMap:

  /** Map on the right of this disjunction. */ def map[D](g: B => D): (A \/ D) =
    this match { case \/-(a)     => \/-(g(a)) case b @ -\/(_) => b } /** Bind through the right of this disjunction. */ def flatMap[AA >: A, D](g: B => (AA \/ D)): (AA \/ D) =
    this match { case a @ -\/(_) => a case \/-(b) => g(b) }

注意flatMap:如果状态为\/- 则连续运算g(b),如果状态为-\/ 则立即停止运算返回-\/状态。这与Option功能相当。我们用for-comprehension来证明:

 1 val epok = for {  2     a <- \/-(3)  3     b <- \/-(2)  4 } yield a + b                                     //> epok : scalaz.\/[Nothing,Int] = \/-(5)
 5 val epno = for {  6     a <- \/-(3)  7     c <- -\/("breaking out...")  8     b <- \/-(2)  9 } yield a + b                                     //> epno : scalaz.\/[String,Int] = -\/(breaking out...)
10 if (epno.isLeft) (~epno).getOrElse("no error")    //> res5: Any = breaking out...

\/在for-comprehension里的运算行为与Option一致。不过这个\/写法比较别扭。\/type class为任何类型提供了注入方法left和right: scalaz.syntax/EitherOps.scala

  final def left[B]: (A \/ B) =
    -\/(self) final def right[B]:
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